Nine Places in Europe to Experience Ancient Rome

In its heyday, the Roman Empire occupied more than two million square miles and stretched from England to Egypt, with its citizens numbering around 120 million people. With such an enormous reach, the ancient Romans understandably left evidence of their heritage not only in Rome and Italy, but throughout Europe.

As a companion piece to this article on where to experience ancient Rome in Italy outside of Rome, this article highlights spots around Europe where Ancient Romans left their mark.

Vers Pont du Gard, France

Pont du Gard by Roberto Ferrari

This aqueduct in France is positioned between Nîmes and Avignon, along the Gardon river. Built in the 1st century AD, the water traveled more than 50 kilometers to the Roman colony of Nemasus. It’s the tallest of the Roman aqueduct bridges, and arguably the best preserved. A World Heritage Site since 1985.

Nîmes, France

In Nîmes we have several Roman treasures left behind, two pictured here. The first is a classic amphitheater, used as a public theater and gladiator arena, with a capacity of 24,000 spectators. About 400 Roman arenas exist today, and the one in Nîmes is one of the largest. It still serves as an event venue for various spectator events, including two annual bullfights.

Arena of Nimes by Wolfgang Staudt

Below is the Maison Carree, which started its life as a classic Roman temple in 2 AD, and a couple of centuries later was dedicated to Gaius Caesar and Lucius Caesar, two grandsons of Augustus Caesar who both died young. This temple served as inspiration for many buildings, including the Virginia State Capital in the United States, designed by Thomas Jefferson.

Maison Carree by Krzysztof Golik

Arles, France

Amphitheater in Arles by Pierre Selim

Not far from Nîmes is Arles and its elegant Roman amphitheater. Dating from 90 AD, its two tiers accommodated 20,000 tifosi (fans) cheering on their favorite chariot racer. The tower came along in the Medieval era.

Today the amphitheater still hosts events such as plays, concerts and again, bullfights. World Heritage Site since 1981.

Orange, France

North of Arles but still in Provence is Orange, with its Roman theater and triumphal arch, both still beautifully preserved. The structures served the ancient settlement of Arausio, founded in 40 BC.

Roman Theater in Orange by Culturespaces

“Playing a major role in the life of the citizens, who spent a large part of their free time there, the theatre was seen by the Roman authorities not only as a means of spreading Roman culture to the colonies, but also as a way of distracting them from all political activities.” source

Triumphal Arch of Orange by Carole Raddato

The arch above is thought to be perhaps the oldest triumphal arch in the world. In fact, it’s believed that this arch served as the example for the more famous arch that sits in Rome, in the shadow of the Colosseum, dedicated to Constantine.

Orange’s arch sits along what was once part of the via Agrippa and was built during Emperor Augustus’ reign (27 BC – AD 14) to honor veterans of the Gallic wars and members of Augustus’ second legion.

World Heritage Sites for both structures since 1981.

Segovia, Spain

Aqueduct in Segovia, Spain by McPolu

Imagine living with this architectural work of art as part of your daily life. This aqueduct, dating roughly to the 1st century A.D. is so ingrained in the identity of Segovia that it is featured in the city’s coat of arms. Built during the times of a few different emperors (Domitian, Nerva, and Trajan), this is one of the best examples remaining today of a raised aqueduct.

Both the old town of Segovia and the aqueduct were inscribed as World Heritage Sites in 1985.

Bath, England

Aquae Sulis by Diliff

Ohhhh, Bath. A rather unusual name for a city but such magnificence is contained there. Bath’s Roman bath complex, housed in a world-class, larger-than-life museum, is the largest and one of the best preserved examples of a Roman thermal spa in all of Europe. Dating from 60-70 AD, citizens of Roman Britain came to this public bath to worship the goddess Sulis Minerva, and soak in the hot springs which still flow into the complex today.

The baths were in full use until the 5th Century AD, when Roman rule in Britain ended. By the next century, the complex was in ruins, and eventually, forgotten. Despite the thermal waters of Bath being a popular draw for visitors through the centuries, the Roman ruins were not discovered until 1878, when nearby repair work eventually uncovered the ruins.

Located in Somerset, not too far from the ruins of Stonehenge and an easy two-hour drive from London, the entire city of Bath has been a World Heritage Sight since 1987. Just this summer, it received an additional nod from the WHS, being included in the “Great Spa Towns of Europe” inscription.

Hadrian’s Wall, Britain

Hadrian’s Wall near Northumberland by Velella

Hadrian’s wall in northern Britain currently stretches 73 miles across (117.5 km). Built around AD 122 during emperor Hadrian’s reign (naturally), at the time it stretched the width of the island. It’s quite a drive from London — nearly six hours — but if you make the journey to this World Heritage site, Europe expert Rick Steves suggests Haltwhistle as the best access point.

World Heritage status received in 1987 as part of the “Frontiers of the Roman Empire” inscription.

Trier, Germany

By Berthold Werner
Porta Nigra by Berthold Werner

Next, we find ourselves in Trier, Germany, home to many different Roman ruins, but two especially notable are the Aula Palatina, also known as Constantine’s Basilica (pictured above) and Porta Nigra, once a gateway into the Roman colony. It remains as the largest Ancient Roman gate of its kind north of the Alps.

World Heritage Sites since 1986.

Split, Croatia

Peristyle of Diocletian’s Palace by Following Hadrian

The final stop on this Ancient Roman trek across Europe brings us to Split, Croatia, and the Palace of Diocletian. When the palace was built for the emperor around the 4th Century AD, it served a dual purpose — as his intended retirement spot and also a military complex. By choosing this spot, Diocletian was returning to his roots, as the palace was built just a few miles (6km) from his birthplace, the ancient city of Salona, now modern-day Solin.

World Heritage Site since 1979.

Locations sourced from Rick Steves’ Europe 101: History & Art for the Traveler

15 Comments Add yours

  1. A great list, very inspirational! I love that so many countries are represented, and aqueducts never stop to amaze me.

    1. Hi Diana, thank you so much for stopping by and sharing your thoughts! Glad you enjoyed the post, and I agree with you, the aqueducts are a marvel. I love your site, thank you for all the great content you have there! 🙂 Stacy

  2. Now I know even more historical sites to visit in France! Grazie mille!

    1. Can’t resist. Sharing with my Stella Lucente Facebook site!

  3. Grazie! What an interesting post. I didn’t know the French were so into bullfights! Despite being an archeology nerd, I haven’t been to any of these places. Will have to get out my passport soon! Ciao, Cristina

    1. Thank you! So glad you enjoyed it. I agree with you regarding the bullfights! Of these places, I have only been to Bath… it was exquisite! Here’s to dusting off your passport, hope you are well!

      1. Well…so far I am supposed to go to Vegas in Feb and 3 separate events to attend in Italia-which I will try to combine into 2 trips! 🤞🏻🤞🏻🤞🏻Speriamo!

  4. Wonderful article; thank you!

    1. Thank you! Glad you enjoyed it.

  5. Brad Nixon says:

    You’ve found 9 places I’ve never seen, so apparently I’ve never been anywhere. Technically, I crossed Hadrian’s wall twice, once on a bus going north, then on an overnight train headed south, but I’m yet to SEE it. Other than that, the closest I’ve been to any of the others was Wells, not far from Bath, and there’s just never enough time to see everything, is there? The arena in Nimes and the theater in Orange both look spectacular. Also worth a visit and a ticket reservation is the Roman arena in Verona, on the same scale as the one in Nimes, where they pack ’em in for enormous productions of operas, and we had an unforgettable evening there, seeing Aida with a cast of hundreds (including horses, but no elephants). Thanks for opening more pages of the ever-unfolding book of travel. When do you think you’ll get back? Here, we have itchy feet, waiting for the Covid dust to settle. Grazie!

    1. I too am anxious to get back to Italy but have no immediate plans. I hope you and the Counselor can dust off your passports and put them to use very soon!

      Agree with you, never enough time to see it all when you’re in Europe, hence the wish list just seems to get bigger! I would love to see a show in the Verona arena. I was lucky enough to see it in person from the piazza on a day trip to Verona, but being inside the venue for a show would be meravigiloso!

      1. Brad Nixon says:

        As you probably know from personal experience, at least a few times in your well-traveled life, opera is a dead-serious thing in Italy. Attending one in the arena there in Verona was an absolutely unforgettable thing. 20,000 people who actually understand the lyrics (not counting me, but I get the gist of things).
        I wrote tongue-in-cheek about that meravigloso evening here:
        Soon, we’ll return. Where will we go? Hold that thought.

  6. Elena Arezio says:

    Molto interessante!! Grazie

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